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Sand- und Silikat-Kiefernwälder (Dicrano-Pinion) in Deutschland : Gliederungskonzept und Ökologie
Pine forests on sandy and silicate soils (Dicrano-Pinion) in Germany : classification concept and ecology
Kurzfassung auf EnglischIn preparation for the „Synopsis of plant communities of Germany“ a comprehensive classification concept for the Scots pine forests on sandy and silicate soils is presented. On the basis of 2699 relevés from all natural provinces with important occurrences this classification for the first time integrates both northern and southern German forest stands. Pine forests are stable (“climax”) communities on three distinct habitat types at the drought and wetness limits of forest growth. In the phytosociological system these are reflected by the clearly separated syntaxa Erico-Pinetea (dry-calcareous), Dicrano-Pinion (dry-acidic) and Vaccinio uliginosi- Pinetea (wet-acidic). However, Pulsatillo-Pinetea (dry-moderate basicity) described in earlier publications cannot be separated floristically. In addition to the stable communities on extreme habitats pine forests of the mentioned syntaxa are widespread on potential mixed deciduous forest stands, especially after anthropogenic devastation and even beyond their original range. Six communites of the Dicrano-Pinion which also includes such secondary pine forest stands are occurring in Germany. They are presented in detail and classified according to their dynamic and edaphic differentiation. Lichen-rich pine forests (Cladonio- Pinetum) which grow on extremely dry and nutrient-poor sites are ecologically and floristically well-defined, though closely connected with other Dicrano-Pinion communities by forest succession. After separation of the Cladonio-Pinetum the Leucobryo-Pinetum is a speciespoor “central association” within the alliance. The Deschampsia flexuosa-Pinus-sylvestriscommunity is the most widespread forest type and dynamically and floristically passes into the mixed oak forests on acidic soils (Quercion roboris). On base-rich habitats the Empetro- Pinetum as endemic community of the southern Baltic Sea coasts, and the Peucedano-Pinetum in the northeastern and southern German inland are distinguished. The latter is found both on calcareous sands and primarily acidic sands which are secondary limed by calciferous pollutions. Finally, differences and similarities between the geographically separated northern and southern German Dicrano-Pinion forests are discussed in a biogeographic context, emphasising the advantages of the presented nation-wide classification concept.
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