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Feudel, Fred ; Seehafer, Norbert
Bifurcations and pattern formation in a 2D Navier-Stokes fluid
Kurzfassung auf EnglischWe report on bifurcation studies for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two space dimensions with periodic boundary conditions and an external forcing of the Kolmogorov type. Fourier representations of velocity and pressure have been used to approximate the original partial differential equations by a finite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations, which then has been studied by means of bifurcation-analysis techniques. A special route into chaos observed for increasing Reynolds number or strength of the imposed forcing is described. It includes several steady states, traveling waves, modulated traveling waves, periodic and torus solutions, as well as a period-doubling cascade for a torus solution. Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimensions have been calculated to characterize the chaotic branch. While studying the dynamics of the system in Fourier space, we also have transformed solutions to real space and examined the relation between the different bifurcations in Fourier space and toplogical changes of the streamline portrait. In particular, the time-dependent solutions, such as, e.g., traveling waves, torus, and chaotic solutions, have been characterized by the associated fluid-particle motion (Lagrangian dynamics).
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